Endurance 3.1 (47)
After a single session of WB-EMS, significant improvements in upper and lower limbs strength (arm curl and handgrip, sit-to-stand) were observed, while no significant results were observed for the 8 feet up and go test. Probably, for the latter, the discontinuous pattern of this exercise (standing, walking, turning, sitting) might have accounted for the non-significant results as it represents a great challenge related to the PD disease at the basal ganglia level . It was expected that an increase in muscle endurance and strength could be very promising, especially when considered in the framework of chronic training. Indeed, muscle strengthening, by promoting muscle hypertrophy, counteracts the loss of muscle mass, commonly observed in the elderly, which leads to a worsening in gate, mobility and posture .
Endurance 3.1 (47)
We examined the reliability and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET), a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test including shuttles of sideways running. The ARIET was carried out on 198 Italian (Serie A-B, Lega-Pro and National Level) and 47 Danish elite soccer assistant referees. Reproducibility was tested for 41 assistant referees on four occasions each separated by one week. The ARIET intraclass correlation coefficients and typical error of measurement ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 and 3.1 to 5.7%, respectively. ARIET performance for Serie A and B was 23 and 25% greater than in Lega-Pro (P
Background: In people with COPD, dyspnea is the primary symptom limiting exercise tolerance. One approach to reducing dyspnea during exercise is through music listening. A constant speed endurance test reflects a high-intensity aerobic exercise training session, but whether listening to music affects endurance time is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of listening to music during a constant speed endurance test in COPD.
Methods: Participants with COPD completed two endurance walk tests, one with and one without listening to self-selected music throughout the test. The primary outcome was the difference in endurance time between the two conditions. Heart rate, percutaneous oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and rate of perceived exertion were measured before and after each test.
Conclusions: In COPD, dyspnea was less while listening to music and was accompanied by an increased tolerance of high-intensity exercise demonstrated by greater endurance time. Practically, the effect was modest but may represent an aid for exercise training of these patients.
An XB-47 was flown in the 1951 Operation Greenhouse nuclear weapons test. This was followed by a B-47B being flown in the 1952 test, Operation Ivy and the 1954 test, Operation Castle. A B-47E was then flown in the 1956 test, Operation Redwing. "Reflex" missions proved the long-endurance (eighteen hours) and long range capability of the B-47 and aircrews. These were "simulated strike missions against the then Soviet enemy".
This study was designed to determine if observing a similar or dissimilar model who makes varying self-efficacy statements influences an observer's efficacy expectations and, in turn, muscular endurance performance. Females (N = 150) were randomly assigned to groups in a 2 4 3 (model similarity by model talk by trials) factorial design or to a no-model control group. Model similarity was manipulated by having subjects view a female described as a nonathlete (similar) or a male described as a varsity track athlete (dissimilar). The four levels of model talk included: a positive self-talk model who performed and made positive self-efficacy statements, a negative self-talk model who made negative self-efficacy statements, an irrelevant-talk model who made statements unrelated to self-efficacy, and a no-talk model who remained silent throughout the performance. Self-efficacy measures were assessed in addition to performance on three trials of a muscular endurance task. Results revealed that similar model subjects extended their legs significantly longer than dissimilar model and control subjects. Moreover, the similar-positive-talk and similar-no-talk groups performed significantly better than the dissimilar-positive-talk, dissimilar-negative talk, dissimilar-no-talk, and the no-model control groups. Subject self-efficacy, however, was not found to be the major mediating variable affecting these performance changes.
TeaCrine is the synthetic version to naturally occurring theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid) found in the leaves of Camellia kucha tea plants. A few studies have examined the effects of TeaCrine on cognitive perception, but no research exists examining its effects on resistance exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of TeaCrine, a caffeine-like compound, on maximal muscular strength, endurance, and power performance in resistance-trained men.
The present study is the first to examine the efficacy of TeaCrine, a caffeine-like compound, on maximal muscular strength, endurance, and power performance in resistance trained-men. The primary findings were: 1) CAFF300, TEA300 and COMBO had no significant effect on bench press 1RM, squat 1RM, bench press RTF, squat RTF, and power compared to PLA; 2) CAFF300 had significant increases in self-reported energy, focus, and motivation to exercise, but not RPE, compared to TEA300, COMBO, and PLA. We accept our hypothesis that there would be no differences in bench press and squat performance between groups, but reject our hypothesis that CAFF300, TEA300, and COMBO would increase RTF and power performance compared to PLA. Additionally, we reject that compared to PLA, TEA300 and COMBO would significantly increase energy, focus, and motivation to exercise while decreasing fatigue and RPE, but would not be different from CAFF300.
Although ketone body supplements may induce a state of hyperketonemia, the ketone body concentrations achieved following ingestion appear to be influenced by concomitant food intake . In this regard, recent data published in abstract form  reported that postprandial ketone body concentrations following ingestion of a ketone ester supplement (395 mg/kg body weight) were strongly influenced by baseline nutritional status. Specifically, an attenuated increase in peak plasma β-OHB concentrations (fed: 2.1 0.2 mmol/L vs. fasted: 3.1 0.1 mmol/L), and a 60 % reduction in β-OHB area under the curve was demonstrated when the ketone esters were ingested after consumption of a mixed meal when compared to consumption under fasted (post-absorptive) conditions . These findings suggest that co-ingestion of ketone esters with other nutrients may impact gastric emptying and/or tissue uptake of the ingested ketone bodies. This finding may have implications regarding the effectiveness of ketone ester supplementation in athletes, who ingest large amounts of carbohydrate during a competitive event and adapt their nutrient intake during competition according to their specific nutritional needs . Alternatively, whether ketone body supplementation impacts or compromises the intake of other important substrates, such as carbohydrate, may be an important consideration for endurance athletes who often struggle to ingest adequate amounts of carbohydrate during competition . Finally, an additional consideration is how ketone body intake during exercise is tolerated by athletes. Normal healthy subjects, consuming 714 mg/kg of a milk-based ketone ester drink three times a day, were reported to experience feelings of discomfort, including abdominal distention and headaches . However, it should be noted that the milk-based test drink volume amounted to 1.1 L per serving, making it difficult to differentiate between the effects of the ketone esters per se and simply the volume of the drinks that were ingested .
Ketone bodies possess the ability to affect several physiological processes. Previously it has been proposed that ketone bodies can be utilized as an effective energy substrate under certain conditions. As such, ketone bodies have been suggested to have potential positive effects on exercise metabolism and performance. Serving as an alternative fuel source and sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores are among the proposed mechanisms by which ketone bodies have been suggested to benefit endurance exercise performance. Although ketone body supplementation has been proposed to be beneficial for endurance athletes and ketone esters are speculated to be routinely used by professional cyclists, to the best of our knowledge there is currently limited information on the effects of ketone body supplementation on exercise metabolism and performance in recreational and/or elite athletes. Future research should focus on elucidating the metabolic effects of ketone body supplementation during exercise in athletes who adhere to appropriate nutrient intake strategies relevant for their respective sport and/or sports setting. Subsequently, many questions remain to be answered, including practical issues regarding the dose and timing of the proposed ketone (ester) supplement, the interaction with other substrates in various nutritional settings, and their quantitative contribution as an energy substrate during exercise of varying exercise intensity and duration. It will be important to evaluate the kinetics of ketone body availability in a sports-specific manner, tailored towards the needs of the individual athlete. In conclusion, based upon the few available data and our current understanding of ketone body metabolism during exercise in a sports specific setting, we conclude there is currently no evidence to support the use of ketone bodies as an ergogenic aid under conditions where optimal evidence based nutritional strategies are applied. 041b061a72